(Filipino: Kalakhang Maynila, Kamaynilaan), commonly known as Metro Manila or simply Manila, the National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines, is the seat of government and the most populous regionof the country which is composed of Manila, the capital city of the country, Quezon City, the country’s most populous city, the Municipality of Pateros, and the cities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina,Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, and Valenzuela.
The National Capital Region,
with an area of 619.5 km2, has a population of 12,877,253, making it the most populous region in the Philippines, as well as the 7th most populous metropolitan area in Asia. The total urbanized area, referring to its continuous urban expansion into the provinces of Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal and Batangas, was listed as having a population of 24,123,000 by Demographia, making it the 3rd most populous urban area in the world. These 5 provinces, plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015.
The region is the center of culture, economy, education, and government of the Philippines. NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global power city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, both locally and internationally. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country.
Its economical power makes the region the country’s premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines.
The region was established in 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines.
The Province of Manila,
the progenitor to the present-day Metro Manila, is one of the eight original provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The province was honored as one of the sun rays in the Flag of the Philippines, with each of the eight sun rays symbolizing one of the eight revolutionary provinces.
A historical province known as Manila encompasses the former pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila (Intramuros) serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served as the capital from 1898-1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States. The province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901.
Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities. The Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sail the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, and cultural exchange.
During the American period,
at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government. The creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Manila, Pandacan, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig–Paterosarea were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital.
In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City
with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed. The establishment of Quezon City meant demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, the loss of more than 100,000 lives at theBattle of Manila in 1945. Later on, Quezon City eventually served as the national capital from 1948-1976. It was reinstated back to Manila through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the seat of governmentof the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.
During the war,
President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque,Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig–Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezon’s principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila that was established during the Marcos administration.
On November 7, 1975,
Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No. 824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was also created to manage the region. On June 2, 1978, through Presidential Decree No. 1396, the metropolitan area was declared the National Capital Region of the Philippines. When Metro Manila was established, there were four cities, Manila, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and the thirteen municipalities of Las Piñas, Makati,Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. At present, all of these municipalities except for one have become an independent charted city, only Pateros remains as a municipality.
President Ferdinand Marcos appointed his wife Imelda Marcos as the first governor of Metro Manila. She launched the City of Man campaign. The Cultural Center of the Philippines, Metropolitan Folk Arts Theater, Philippine International Convention Center, the Lung Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart Center, the Kidney Center of the Philippines and the Coconut Palace are all constructed precisely for this purpose. The City of Man campaign was discontinued when the Marcos were ousted from power after the People Power Revolution.
After the 8 years of dictatorship, President Marcos
was overthrown by the people at a peaceful revolution in EDSA in February 1986, where they stayed there for three days. The movement was known as thePeople Power Revolution and made headlines such as “the revolution that surprised the world”.
In 1986, President Corazon Aquino
issued Executive Order No. 392, reorganizing and changing the structure of the Metropolitan Manila Commission and renamed it to the Metropolitan Manila Authority. Mayors in the metropolis chose from among themselves the chair of the agency. Later on, it was again reorganized in 1995 through Republic Act 7924, creating the present-day Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. The chairperson of the agency will be appointed by the President and should not have a concurrent elected position such as mayor. Former Laguna province governor Joey Lina was the last to serve as the Officer-In-Charge governor of Metro Manila.
In the year-end of 2014, MMDA Chairman Francis Tolentino proposed that San Pedro, Laguna be included in Metro Manila as its 18th member city.
Metro Manila is located in the southwestern portion of Luzon. The region lies along the flat alluvial lands extending from the mouth of the Pasig River in the west to the higher rugged lands of Marikina Valley in the east. The region is geographically divided into 4 zones: the Coastal Margin, Guadalupe Plateau, Marikina Valley, and the Laguna Lowlands. The Coastal Margin that faces the Manila Bay possesses resources for offshore fisheries and fishpond development. The various reclamation projects in the area are meant for mixed-use urban development. The Guadalupe Plateau is the most adaptable to urban development activities not only because of its solid geographical foundations but also because of its existing infrastructure links with the rest of Luzon. The Marikina Valley has fertile land suitable for crop cultivation while the Marikina River provides water for industrial uses and discharge. The Laguna Lowlands is not only suitable for agriculture and aquaculture but also for industrial activity.
Metro Manila is prone to earthquakes because it is surrounded by active faults including the Marikina Valley Fault System. Other distant faults such as the Philippine Faults, Lubang Faults, Manila Trenchand Casiguran Faults, are a threat as well. Because of the natural disasters that poses a threat to Metro Manila, Manila was ranked as the second riskiest capital city after Tokyo to live in according to Swiss Re.
According to the Köppen climate classification, NCR features tropical wet and dry climate and tropical monsoon climate. Metro Manila has a relatively short dry season from January through May, and a lengthy wet season from June through December.