It comprises five provinces: Camiguin, Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Bukidnon and Misamis Occidental and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin. The regional center is Cagayan de Oro. Lanao del Norte was transferred to 7.215020 (then called Central Mindanao) by virtue of Executive Order No. 36in September 2001.
The current name of the region was derived from its position on Mindanao island. The term was officially coined by the Americans after the establishment of American colonial rule in the Philippines due to the defeat of Filipino revolutionaries. There have been proposals to rename the current Northern Mindanao region, which is dominated by the Cebuano ethnic group, into the Amihanan region. Amihanan literally translates to ‘northern area’ from the Cebuano language, which is the lingua franca of the region. Another proposed name is Calaminon, which is a combination of the names of the region’s provinces.
Northern Mindanao is the 8th most populous region in the Philippines and 2nd in Mindanao (after Davao Region) according to the 2015 Philippine Statistics Authority Census. The major urban area of Region X is Metro Cagayan de Oro which includes Cagayan de Oro and some municipalities and cities of Misamis Oriental and Bukidnon.
The vast majority of the region’s inhabitants descended from migrants from Cebu and Bohol. Some other inhabitants are of Waray, Hiligaynon, Zamboangueño, Maranao and Tausug descent, while the autochthonous Bukidnons and Manobos populate the inner highlands.
The predominate Religion is Roman Catholicism that forms 72% of the population while Protestants form a significant minority forming 14% of the population. The largest Non Christian religion is Islam forming 8% of the Population